Monday, September 16, 2019
Question: Discuss operations strategies of three companies. Answer: Operational Strategy: Amazon.com Introduction: Amazon.com has become the largest customer friendly online retailer and provides one click purchase facility to its wide range of products including books, music, toys, gifts, electronics etc. For 2011 AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s net sales documented the value of $48077 million to earn net income of $631 million (Annual Report, 2011). Currently, Amazon is serving more than 137 million of its customers with its 56200 employees all over the world. Moreover, International traffic also ranks Amazon at 16th position. However, Amazon achieved this milestone through deploying its three fold strategy of limitless inventory, customer convenience and low price. The purpose of current study is also to explore that how Amazon achieved its objective by using its digital channel. 1. Mass Customization: Primary difference between a physical retailer and Amazon is its online operations that allow Amazon to adopt mass customization. Amazon.com provides an opportunity to offer huge collection of books, music or other products without keeping them physically on shelf. Millions of books are available at Amazon for purchase while a large brick and mortar store is required to keep such huge inventory. In 1999 Amazon consistently added new product line or capabilities after every six weeks to increase its sale revenue. Currently, its product range can be divided into 34 broad categories. Such product customization differentiates Amazon with its competitors. It is argued that product customization is a critical source of competitive advantage even as compared to price competitiveness as it allows customers to select products according to their needs and wants at one place. So, one can attribute such mass customization to the success of Amazon.com. 1.1 Amazon Operating Models: However, to provide such mass customization Amazon follows its threeÃ operating models. First, it sells its own inventories and manages customer relation and supply chain on its own through Amazon.com. Second, Amazon also act as third person and allow other companies to place their products at Amazon.com for sale. However, Amazon only manages front end customer relations while logistic issues are controlled by sellers. In 1999 Amazon offered Z shop facility that allows small companies to sell their product through Amazon.com. His strategy was to compete with e-bay who was also providing similar services of auction. At last Amazon has also introduced its e-commerce solutions and design web sites and offer hosting services to its customers. In other words these three operating models provide huge collection of products that is consistent to its business strategy limitless inventor y. 2. Integrated Business Operations: Success of Amazon strategies lay within its integrated business operations. Figure 1 illustrates that how Amazon fulfill its customers order through integrating its operations. Amazon.com server uses the supply chain optimization software to predict demand and also optimize its supply chain. In first step customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data for credit card is processed to finalize their orders. Amazon warehouse is also information about customer order in this respect for coordination. This is done to find out stock information at Amazon warehouse. However, in case of shortage at Amazon warehouse appropriate suppliers are selected. This information is transferred to publishers, music companies and electronic OEM for further process. After receiving order information publishers, music companies and electronic OEM dispatch required products physically to the nearest Amazon warehouse. At Amazon warehouse these items are packed and also send to customer place through UPS or US postal services. In this way Amazon develop integrated business operations that share information over its network for effectiveness. Figure 1: Amazon Network of Fulfillment Amazon integrated system speeds up the process and customers can receive their product at same or next day. This will positively contribute to customerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty. Moreover, Amazon also made required changes to its fulfillment system when needed especially for huge order fulfillments. For instance Amazon received record advance order of 275000 for single volume of Harry Porter. This challenged information staff at Amazon. During such eventÃ Amazon mailed to its customers for confirmation of delivery information. Moreover, before shipment data regarding each package was updated. For Shipment purpose Amazon contracted with FedEx for shipping 250000 orders at released date that scheduled 100 flights to fulfill orders. In this way, Amazon successfully met such huge order fulfillment on released date. 2. Low Cost Strategies: Porter (1980) argued that firms can gain sustainable competitive advantages through adopting differentiation, cost leadership or focus strategies. While on the other hand Loudon & Loudon, (2006) argued that firms can gain cost leadership through online operations as it reduces ordering and inventory cost. Mass customization at Amazon also augmented its profitability through high activity with low variable cost. Fixed cost per unit decreases with the increase in activity as compared to variable cost per unit (Drury, 2006). While in case of Amazon fixed cost of system dominates as comp ared to nominal variable cost. Cost of technology, many parts of fulfillment cost and advertisement costs are fixed in nature. On the other hand Amazon is bearing nominal variable cost. This indicates that high activity will lead to low fixed cost per unit cost that Amazon can use to settle for low prices. So, this mass customization will also lead to high productivity that ultimately will optimize profits through decreased fixed cost per unit. Moreover, Amazon also reduces its costs through cross docking shipments. For instance Amazon place its different items like books, toys, electronic etc simultaneously in single order to the closest warehouse located near to customers. To do so, Amazon uses its Ã¢â¬Å"12 technologiesÃ¢â¬ to optimize solutions and to predict demand. 3. Customer Fulfillment Network (CFN) Strategy: On the other hand Amazon has also adopted the customer fulfillment networking (CFN) strategy that emphasize to augment gross profit margins through purchasing books directly from publishers rather than involving distributors who add their profits. CFN strategy was developed to integrate customer relationship management and order fulfills management applications. CFN system compares customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand with their capabilities to recognize that whether Amazon can fulfill their orders with reasonable profits or not. It also allows predicting dynamic demand that ultimately reduces the carrying cost and transportation cost at Amazon warehouse. Moreover, it also allows improving their cash flow as less cash is tired up in inventory and increase inventory turnover that ultimately augments firmÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ profits. 4. Customer Centric Strategies: One can also explain AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s success in respect of its ability to extract and use of customer information. Amazon keeps a complete record of all of its customers. Amazon main a data base that knows that when and what a customer orders. If a customer has not been placing order for some time then Amazon sends him an e-mail coupon containing information regarding entirely different or related product line to stimulate customers for reordering. For instance it is possible that you will receive an e-mail regarding computer equipments products if you last purchased a notebook. 4.1 personalized Options: Similarly, Amazon.com also provides convenience in selecting products over its website through customization. Web pages are customized according to the liking of their customers. One can easily personalize his selection when he login as a customer at Amazon.com. All the Amazon products are divided into 34 broad categories. A person can select and search within these 34 broad categories easily. It is consistent with their strategy of providing convenience to customers. 4.2 Customer Review: It is argued that digital means of information can be used to communication product quality and also creates a bond between buyers and sellers especially within online markets (Chevalier and Mayzlin, 2006). Amazon also stimulates its customers to write editorial and review of book they purchased. This option of book review communicates positive information to other potential customers and increases the like-hood of purchase. It is also consistent with Chevalier and Mayzlin, (2006) who also argued that improvement in scores obtained by a book through book review contributes to purchase intentions and lead to high sales revenue. 4.3 Quick Shipment: Providing hassle-free fulfillment of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ order is also viewed as one of the key success areas of Amazon. For most of the product Amazon offers same or next day fulfillment. This is what makes different Amazon with other online retailers. However, Amazon does this through its integrated order fulfillment process as demonstrated in figure 1. Operation Strategy: Dell Introduction Dell is a technological sales company which performs their business in the whole world as is possible to see in the following diagram. With net revenue of $61,133,000,000 is the second largest computer manufacturer company in the word and the number one in United States. Dell focuses on Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Consumer (B2C) commerce to satisfy their business and individual customers. Dell differentiates between classes of customers because the needs of their business customers, who buy large quantities of computers, are different than the individuals who want to configure a single unit. The present document is oriented to analyze Dell just since the point of view of operations management starting with a review of the company, after a look over Product design process, the internal process and the technology associated, how Dell forecast the coming productions rates, how Dell manages their inventory, which is the quality model followed by the company, which is the human resource strategy to finalize with conclusions and reflections. 1. Operations Strategy Identify the operations strategy of Dell is go almost in all the main activities of the company where operations is relevant. Under this perspective, the list of strategies is related to some areas of operations inside of the company: * Be the greenest technology company on the planet and the first computer company to achieve carbon-neutral operations by the end of 2008. * Continue leadership with the climate strategy and global recycling programs. * Partner with customers in energy-efficiency and climate-protection initiatives. * Broaden the Global Citizenship commitment. * Recommit efforts to improve sustainability governance. 2. Product design process For Dell, Globalization has impacted directly in the management of the product life cycle involving more stakeholders during the process of product development; thereby the complexity of this process has become more complexÃ as well. The most important factor introduced in the product life cycle is the environmental issue. For Dell, the design products have to be energy efficient, to avoid unnecessary materials and to be easy to use, which is supported by rigorous business controls and supplier audits that consider (Dell, 2008): * Energy Efficiency: Dell delivers optimized performance per watt, and help customers deploy systems efficiently. In this way, IT is an important avenue to decreasing cost of ownership and enhancing productivity while reducing a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s carbon footprint. * Precautionary Chemicals and Materials Use: Dell design to eliminate the use of unregulated substances if we believe they possess hazard characteristics similar to other, regulated substances. If alternatives are not yet viable, Dell works to develop reliable, environmentally sound and commercially scalable solutions. * Supply Chain Sustainability: We expect suppliers to uphold the same commitment to environmental responsibility as we do, as a condition of doing business with them. Dell design activities are compliant with this internationally recognized standard for environmental management system criteria (ISO 14001 certification program) Other main stream of definition of what Dell is doing in terms of product design rely on the participation of their own customers. The website Ã¢â¬Å"Dell Idea StormÃ¢â¬ (http://www.ideastorm.com) where customers participate directly in the conceptualization of products giving their own ideas of develops, voting for another ideas already posted or simply criticizing products from the company. This website is a very comprehensive platform to cover an appropriate SWOT analysis of products design due to the huge variety of post and group discussion on it. 3. Processes and Technology 3.1 Production process The well known operation model of Dell called Ã¢â¬ËDell DirectÃ¢â¬â¢ base its value added in just work on demand eliminating intermediaries in procurement, manufacturing and distribution processes. The technology used by the company in the manufacturing process is the base of success and therefore play a very important role in its operations. DellÃ¢â¬â¢s technology allow to the company to combine its resources, its relationship with suppliers and its consumer communication capabilities, developing one big advantage over its competitors. Dell is in Ã¢â¬Å"Mass ProductionÃ¢â¬ process category due to mainly the stable demand of products, the assembly work as a main line of production and with a good level of efficiency. To consider Dell as a manufacturing or assembly company is a constant discussion even for the employees of the company. Due to the nature of the products (mainly computers) they build new products that do not exists in the market, in this sense they are manufactures. But in another sense they just assemble component which production is on suppliers, in this sense could be considerate that dell Ã¢â¬Å"buy to sellÃ¢â¬ . In this document the company will be considered as a manufacturer company. The generation of innovative ideas for the production line is pulled due to the necessity of new kind of products defined basically due to the interaction with suppliers and customers. All the Dell manufacturing centers use the same processes enable by the same systems and are measured in the same way. This insurance consistency award quality across the global network and also allows identifying and implementing best practices. The standardized process of manufacturing is divided as is illustrated in the following diagram. Final Test and labeling Order accumulation area Software Installation and Testing Customer Order Pull Kiting Boxing Build These processes are described as follow: * Customer order pull: receive the electronics orders closer to the ship destination. In this point the order is transferred from Dell order management systems to the Manufacturing scheduling system. The servers of the facility keep the track of order process associating serialized parts with unique codes. * Kitting: the build to order process of Dell generate request for materials which is delivered to the factory. Since there are no warehouses the inventory system is very important and every part is serialized and labeled since this is received from suppliers (which are basically important for Dell quality system). The scanning of these tags associated to the order indicates to the personnel which components should be part of a specific order, and at the end of the kidding line, all the parts of a single unique order are ready for the next step. * Build: the scan of the code associated to the single order gives to the personnel specific instructions to builders based in the customer requirements. In this step, Dell associates every single component using bar codes to the order allowing a better quality control for the company. * Software Installation and Testing: Directed by the main brain, the central gives specific instruction to ensure all the components are presents and operating properly before to install any software in machines. * Boxing: This process ensures all the components required by the user are properly stored and ready for the ship. Once finished the boxing, the order goes straight for shipping or the order accumulation area. * Order accumulation area: When the client creates and order, all the required products start at the same time but not all of them finish at the same time due to process variability. Once all of them are finished the shipping process starts. * Depending form the order, there is an external synchronization with others manufactures as monitors or printers manufacturers for example, which allow to Dell to reduce inventory with extern products to the production line. 3.2 E-business E-business is central to DellÃ¢â¬â¢s entire operations and Dell uses e-business extensively across its entire value chain to deliver high levels of service to its customers and suppliers. Dell basically does trades with two of the four main kind of e-business (B2B, B2C, C2B and C2C) and both of them based in the internet architecture * B2C: the main stream is represented by direct communication between Dell and their customers. Internet allows this direct communication avoiding intermediaries. This guarantees a good quality service for the customers, efficient processes, decision makers in real time, higher customer expectations and globalization. * B2B: this stream of communication connects Dell with their suppliers allowing and efficient process of communication with the same benefits described in B2C. Also, the when big corporations and governments are clients, the definition of relation is established in a very particular way treating them as a special customers that need a special attention. 3.3 Technology In terms of technology, Dell in all its experience in all the manufacturing centers has implemented a large number of solutions in order to accomplish a constant improvement in the value chain. Basically, the main source of constant improvement has been Internet, helping Dell to establish good relations with both their suppliers and their customers. The high level of integration that this technology has allowed is on simple evidence through the corporate website (www.dell.com) where for example suppliers are allowed to follow their material as it used throughout DellÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. They can log-on, drop off invoices, check engineering change orders; review negotiated and forecasted cost reports, and track their overall performances and progress. The Ã¢â¬Å"Dell i2 Supply Chain Management (i2SCM)Ã¢â¬ is the name of the solution implemented to cover communications necessities with suppliers. This implementation enabled to Dell to reduce costs providing component suppliers and Dell planners with global views of product demand and material requirements. In partnership with IBM, both have managed to maintain high employee productivity. The join in between companies to design the productions lines provide near unlimited availability to their IT infrastructure. Another outcome of this partnership is the use of electronic catalog with appropriate search functionality. As an example time ago, Altiris Recovery Solution was selected by Dell for integrated delivery of backup and disaster recovery. Altiris along with Dell Open Manage Client Administrator (OMCA) will provide Ã¢â¬Å"Direct integration of Altiris backup and recovery technology with Dell OMCA which helps ensure business continuity and helps provide additional cost savings for Dell customers through proactive IT managementÃ¢â¬ . These factors implemented into a concrete disaster recovery plan provide Dell and IBM with the confidence to scale and complex IT network. 3.4 Production Layout Dell is by definition an assembly manufacturer company, where basically the process is only one and the assembly line as well. Dell does not build any part or piece of the computers, lodging basically in their own suppliers which have the necessary expertise and commitment with dellÃ¢â¬â¢s production line. If we consider Dell and their suppliers as a unique company it will be represented as typical Ã¢â¬Å"Process LayoutÃ¢â¬ , and Dell will be of course in this exercise the assembly department. The main advantages of the Ã¢â¬Å"Product layoutÃ¢â¬ (or assembly line production layout) are: * The amount of time for a product to be ready is faster in general if it is compared with other kind of process layout. * The set up cost of the product layout is low due to the facilities does not vary in position and functionality. * Due to the tasks of every stage are very specific, the efficiency of this kind of distribution (production layout) is higher than others types of layouts. This very related with the high continuity of the assembly line. * The necessary planning in order to be concern about matters like synchronization is very low if it is compared with other layouts, this because is just one continue line. * The required level of expertise is not so important as well considering that the main task is to assemble. There is no much hard production processes to take care about. * For Dell the level of inventory is very low, maybe too much low considering the average industry in Ã¢â¬Å"Products LayoutÃ¢â¬ companies. This is because the technological advantage of Dell using Internet. As negative point in Dell layout oriented to product, it is possible to say that the required infrastructure is more expensive than other layouts because the high degree of cohesion that should exist in the assembly line which it demands a high technology and dedicated machinery. 4. Supply Chain As is possible to appreciate, Dell Company is in the middle of all the operations since suppliers till the final customer. The simplicity of this model put on evidence the absence of intermediaries in the supply chain, which is synonymous of low cost, fast answer to clientÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. The communication between Dell and suppliers is by Internet, and in real time which it means that the suppliers are constantly monitoring the status of components in order to prepare new orders and negotiate the prices on demand. Usually suppliers have warehouse building nearby DellÃ¢â¬â¢s Manufacturing Centers in order to reduce the risk of lack of components in the main assembly line of Dell and assuming at the same time the inventory costs that Dell is avoiding. The suppliers usually feed the starting point of the DellÃ¢â¬â¢s assembly line, but as the illustration show, it is possible to have some suppliers after the production line of Dell (even out of Dell facilities). Partnership with screen or printer manufacturers, allow to the final user to order for products that are absolutely out of DellÃ¢â¬â¢s production lines, and it is just necessary to complete the order in their warehouses to finally ship the order to the client. Is important to recognize that the use of Internet is the blood of this system, without this technology would be impossible to coordinate such value system. In order to make the service easier for customers within this supply chain, Dell has divided their home page into a number of major customer groups: * Home & Home Office, * Small Business * Medium and Large Business and * Government, Education & Healthcare 5 Forecasting, Planning and Scheduling 5.1 Forecasting As a forecasting method Dell, as many other big companies, base their analysis on the records stored on the internal Customer Relationship Manager system (CRM). This system stores every registry made by customers in order to analyze the tendency of the actual behavior and predict demand for certain products in the future. Now considering daily operations on Dell, there is a Ã¢â¬Å"Short Range ForecastÃ¢â¬ process that operates constantly. Dell uses state of the art production planning programs that forecast the quantities of components needed to buildÃ the computers. After those forecasts are made, supply chain systems pass those forecasts to suppliers, who respond with cost estimates and plan their production as a result. As the CRM, the mentioned i2SCM (technology section) is another provider of forecast information as well, providing real-time factory scheduling and inventory management. These methods used by Dell are considerate Ã¢â¬Å"Quantitative Forecast MethodsÃ¢â¬ , leaving for decisions makers, the forecast that comes from Ã¢â¬Å"Qualitative Forecast MethodsÃ¢â¬ . 5.2 Scheduling Dell bases its scheduling process in the system i2SCM system output. One of the basic tasks of i2SCM is to streamlines the supply chain in order to keep a constant flow of component in the starting point of the assembly line, and considering this, as a consequence is in charge of provide a manufacturing schedule the whole plant. This scheduling process is refreshed every 2 hours. 6. Inventory Management Dell has implemented Ã¢â¬Å"Just-In-Time Inventory SystemÃ¢â¬ which operates on only 6 days of inventory. This simple number implies a huge benefit for Dell because this enable to the company to reduce the warehousing costs, also is not necessary to hire people to put in charge and maintain the inventories and though technology become obsolete very quickly, for Dell this is not a problem because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t hold obsolete technology in its small inventory. The way how Dell controls, in terms of basic definition its inventory and the costs that this means is being a Ã¢â¬Å"Demand Pull CompanyÃ¢â¬ (used as well as a Lean system method), whereas one of its top competitors (Compaq HP for example) is strictly a supply-push company and operates in a more traditional manner. 7. Quality model Since several years, Dell has been operating their manufacturer plants using the production standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 (Dell). Dell operations in China have been distinguished by Ministry of Information Industry (MII) and China Quality Management Association for Electronics Industry (CQAE) receiving wards such as Ã¢â¬Å"Excellent Quality Management CorporationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Excellent Quality Management TeamÃ¢â¬â¢s and Ã¢â¬Å"Excellent Quality Management IndividualÃ¢â¬ . It demonstrates DellÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to providing high-quality products and superior customer experience (Dell). The main support behind this award is the constant focus in the customer-centric strategy, and the will for a constant improving in the quality management system. In Dell, the quality control process starts from engineering design and the early testing stages during which design for reliability is the priority. Been conscious of quality standards in early analysis of failure mode, the product design is based on typical customer profile and operation requirement. It is important to consider that reliability test and improvement are also keys factors to ensuring the best quality. In addition, Dell has extended the Ã¢â¬Å"quality chainÃ¢â¬ putting great emphasis on suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ quality management, as the company always regards the quality of the components as crucial factors for product quality. According to this, Dell has established a set of scientific and complete management process, which ensures final product quality through rigid selection and process control of industry-leading suppliers. Considering the whole process, the Quality Management during manufacturing process is the strongest guarantee of Dell productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality. Engineering pilot and employee training are conducted before any new product launch. Through Statistic Process Control Quality Analysis, Dell is able to detect and improve incoming material and process issues, which guarantee the best manufacturing quality. 8. Human Resources Strategy DellÃ¢â¬â¢s direct business model influenced an organizational structure that fosters direct communication and open-minded listening. As an strategy toÃ accomplish this objective is to listen employees, and this is done through Ã¢â¬Å"Tell DellÃ¢â¬ program, a voluntary and confidential employee opinion survey. This program is developed to encourage employees to speak frankly and privately about DellÃ¢â¬â¢s principles, values, strategies, policies, managerial effectiveness and employee engagement. In this way the HRM department, after taken the measurement, is able to act in direct response to surveys. Some responses to these kind surveys were for example in the past: * Implementation of an employee purchase program * Greater work-life flexibility * Streamlined decision-making processes * Increased focus on employee development * Improved customer solutions Less formal but equally important strategy to get employees feedback is Employee Storm. A tool that enables every Dell employee to bring experiences and creative solutions to Dell and our customers. With the objective to reduce mistakes and its consequences, Dell has implemented a strategy related to ethic tools. This strategy defines for example policies of communication in order to allow employees approach the company when they feel is necessary according to the defined Dell Code of Conduct. These policies are: * Open door policy * Global Ethics and Compliance Team * Ethic helpline Since Dell is committed to inclusion and diversity, their mission is to succeed in the marketplace by fostering a winning culture in which Dell employees are highly talented, committed, reflective of our global customers, and recognized as our greatest strength. For Dell Ã¢â¬Å"diversityÃ¢â¬ is the core of their values and winning culture. For this Dell has implemented the following activities: * Employees networking groups. A program that connect employees that share the same nationality, gender, ethnicity, etc. * Diversity Education and Training. Providing quality professional development opportunities to all employees. * Work/Life Effectiveness. Committed to balance the employees contribution to the company with their personal lives. Other areas of strategy where Dell has been working on are: * Global talent management * Employee health and wellness * Employee sustainability engagement Conclusions It is very interesting to remark that Dell, a multinational company with a big size, is successfully capable to repeat basically the same formula of manufacturing process in every manufacturing center that the company has. Dell has been able to repeat the best practices across the borders around the world which by definition represent a big challenge for any company. Never the conditions will go to be the same: restricted markets, cultural shocks for employees, different cost structure are some of the factor that usually affect multinational companies with operations in many countries around the world. Dell strategy found its success in basically the correct and optimums use of technology; Internet is practically the blood of Dell system, or the base of Dell success. DellÃ¢â¬â¢s business model bases its success basically in Information technology. There is not a revolutionary change in the way how to do business, is just a perfect example of how to take advantage of technology to become the most efficient competitor in the computer sales industry. Even though Dell business model is very well know, has been a model very difficult to imitate basically because the huge investment that companies should do together with their suppliers. The supply chain structure in this case is the key of success. Is not a matter of investment coming just from Dell to have success, is a sacrifice coming from Dell, suppliers and partners that in some way are trusting in Dell way of doing business. Trust in the value chain, is definitely a very big competitive advantage for Dell. The product mix from Dell is not as broad as directs competitors are doing it, which in one way has allowed to Dell specialization, focus and expertise in the field. But is a risk at the same time because depending basically on a very limited amount of product and services it does not open many alternatives to explore new markets or develop innovative solutions amount the products and services. Even though Dell is considered a very successful business model, the company has been having problems. These problems are reflected in financial reports which indicate that Dell is not reaching the rate of growing that they were expecting. Although Internet is the base of its success, it has been a big problem for Dell as well, since the point of view that important bloggers has been complaining in the net about the pour quality of services and this has spread quickly between users a non god image of the company. Dell is working on this blog phenomenon taking care of every comment done in the net about their products and services. Another problem faced by Dell is that Dell is becoming victim of its size because they are trying to keep the rate of growing in a market where the value of their products fall significantly every year , this means that to keep the rate of growing is necessary to have a higher rate of sales. As a final weak point in the way how Dell is approaching businesses, Dell is relaying increasingly on new markets which it means that Dell is just applying best practices and knowledge in the field rather than go deep with a study of the new entrance. This could be a risk considering the diversity and cultural matters in between their customers. Operation Strategy: IBM Introduction: IBM or International Business Machines is a well known American computer manufacturer, founded by Thomas J. Watson (born 1874-02-17). IBM is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Big BlueÃ¢â¬ after the color of its logo. The company has madeÃ everything from mainframes to personal computers and has been immensely successful selling business computers. Drawing on the strength of the full strategy and change practice: Operations Strategy is one of the four competencies within IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s larger Strategy and Change team. The three parallel competencies are Business Strategy, Organization Change Strategy and Technology Strategy. Operations Strategy helps clients resolve a variety of critical issues from strategy and planning to day-today operational improvements. IBM practitioners specialize in identifying the capabilities that are required to execute business strategies and in defining how operational models should be configured, implemented, and continuously improved. With deep experience in operations strategy, IBM provide clients with the support needed to address the operational issues that are crucial to success. Helping clients with critical business issues: Clients look to Operations Strategy for help with these critical business issues: * Cost efficiency and performance improvement * Focus on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core business * Increasing shareholder value * Continuous process improvement * Maintaining competitive edge * Improving customer service quality * Migration to new technology * Product innovation management * Merger synergy realization. IBM experience in successfully formulating and implementing operations strategies lies in three main areas: * Helping clients formulate operations strategies that align corporate and business strategy with organization, technology and process strategy. * Providing process expertise for business process change, reengineering and operational improvement, cost reduction, Six Sigma, innovation management, and post-merger integration. * Assisting clients with outsourcing strategies and their execution, including make/buy/partner decision strategies, domestic and global outsourcing, and creating scalable operations. Utilizing a proven, consistent approach: All Operations Strategy engagements incorporate the following key elements: * Mobilization Ã¢â¬â Utilizes preparation and planning to help increase the odds of successful and timely project completion. * Situation assessment Ã¢â¬â Establishes a shared assessment of the current and future situation with senior client management. * Strategy development Ã¢â¬â Defines strategic options and specifies strategic initiatives which are Designed to create significant value for the client. * Implementation planningÃ¢â¬â Determines critical success factors and establishes change programs to implement the strategic initiatives. * Learning Ã¢â¬â Measures and adapts the strategic management process in real time utilizing key Performance indicators. Providing a full suite of offerings: Operations Strategy has a diverse range of capabilities, including: Rapid process change: * A solution for rapidly identifying and delivering a step change in process, organizational and systems performance. Rapid process change focuses on achieving tangible operating improvement results in an accelerated time frame. Six Sigma/Lean Sigma: * Strives to create both operational excellence and a strategic change in the culture of a corporation, division or business unit. These engagementsÃ are designed to increase customer satisfaction and drive out costs by helping to improve processes linked to company strategy and key performance indicators. Six Sigma also helps build an enduring capability within the organization that can create and sustain competitive advantage over the long term. Design for Six Sigma: * Extends Six Sigma principles to the development of new products, services, processes, and plants that are designed to precisely meet client current and future needs. Strategic profit improvement: * A framework designed to deliver improved financial performance, including: increasing revenues and margin, reducing costs and assets, strengthening infrastructure, and positioning for future growth. Service after the sale: * Helps clients lower their customer service costs and find new sources of revenue and value-added differentiation. Product innovation management: * Supports the business decision making component of product development. These engagements are designed to reduce time-to market and product development costs and they help increase the pace of innovation. Enterprise focus: * Determines which components of a business are strategic and critical to success of the enterprise and which are not. Then identifies opportunities for improvement and transformation by comparing critical business requirements and operational capabilities. Shared services implementation: * Our team builds a business case for the transition to a shared services operational model, designs a custom shared services solution, and then works with the client to successfully implement the change. Outsourcing governance: * Helps organizations establish a program management office capable of supporting outsourcing Initiatives throughout their lifecycle, from qualification and assessment to development and Operation. Demonstrating success at numerous clients: At one client, a leading consumer electronics manufacturer, benefits of the project included: * Reduction of overhead costs due to redundant / inefficient overhead services and infrastructure in Corporate HQ and five worldwide product divisions. * Annual savings of over $400 million, including: agreements in infrastructure sharing and Governance, shared services and elimination of cost drivers and redundant resources, and establishment of a project management office for active savings tracking and reinforcement. At a large manufacturer of aluminum products, we developed and implemented a new operating model. The scope and results included: * Analyzed operations for 15 business units in 10 countries * Creation of global process models * Over $300 million in annual savings, including improved processes, continued focus on cost Controls, and adoption of best practices across business units. Finally, we developed an outsourcing strategy for a leading manufacturer of semiconductor equipment. The scope Included: * Working with client executive team to develop a vision and operating model * Implemented the model, focusing new investment in core business processes and developing and implementing the roadmap to outsource all non-core processes to save client significant cost and increase competitive advantage. IBM Clients: A small sample of IBM clients includes leaders of every industry and all levels of Government: ABB| Ford Motor Company| Motorola| Aetna| Goodrich Corporation| Novell| Alcoa| Halliburton| Panasonic| America Online| Honda Motor Co.| Raytheon| Ashland| IKON Office Solutions| Royal Philips Electronics| Atkins Nutritionals| International Truck and Engine Corporation| Selectron| Bloomberg| Lam Research| Siemens| BP| Lexmark International| Sony| Chevron Texaco| MCI| Tyco International| Circuit City Stores| McKesson| United States Department of Agriculture| Dupont| Medtronic| Verizon Communications|
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËWhoever controls the media, controls the mindÃ¢â¬ In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, the media has become a necessity just like food, clothing, and shelter. The media was ideally designed to be impartial and unbiased Ã¢â¬â to provide information, news, and knowledge that is objective and socially constructive. Unfortunately, in recent times, because of its money making approach the media has adopted a biased approach that is benefitting politicians and the corporate leaders. Sadly, the media is known to be resorting to Ã¢â¬Å"Paid NewsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â news that is published or broadcasted to benefit a certain class of people who have huge economic power and who wield that economic power to buy Ã¢â¬Å"The NewsÃ¢â¬ in their favor. The viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s/readers of such Ã¢â¬Å"Paid NewsÃ¢â¬ are at such a loss with this information that lacks integrity and they can be easily misled. Actually the readers/viewers are deceived in to believing Ã¢â¬Å"Paid NewsÃ¢â¬ which is indeed misrepresentation of the truth.. Article 19 of the Constitution of India Ã¢â¬Å"Reach to the publicÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â states the right to freedom of speech and expression to media .When this freedom is misused by the media, it becomes a prime reason for media corruption, and more or less the willingness of Indian Govt. to eradicate this problem. The objective of this paper is to highlight the roots and remedies of media-corruption in India and to create awareness about the general public about the distortion of news/information by the media Ã¢â¬â to enable viewers to discern, and not be uninformed consumers of the news. Key words: necessary, money making approach, freedom.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
It goes without saying that effective training strategies motivate learners and ensure better results and outcomes from the studying process. It is possible to use instructional strategies to build confidence, to make success easier, to demonstrate relevance of the process as well as to engage learners to solve real problems. Actually, instructional strategies allow students to discover, to share and to explore the matters of particular interest for them. Classroom should be treated as gym. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that desks should be replaced by balance beam. It means that significant shifts are required in instructional approaches. The first effective instructional strategy is to integrate training with what students know. This strategy assists in building skills and knowledge of learners. Furthermore, it complements trainings theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve already and prepares them for developing additional skills. This strategy suggests integrating new information with what students already known. It is necessary to set a comfortable tone in order to encourage sharing and participation and to motivate challenge of ideas and debates regarding the subject. The strategy emphasizes using if familiar metaphors and schemes. The objective of the strategy it to make learners share their personal experience, obtained knowledge of the related topic. Online discussions, groups meetings and e-mails are appreciated as well. The second strategy is to connect training to relevant purposes and goals. This strategy helps to grab learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention to the goals and objectives of the studying process. Instructor should be clear about the goals of the training, because it helps learners to move in directions which correspond to programÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and purposes. Learning goals should be related to personal goals of the learners. Actually, instructor has to encourage participatory goals setting, because students would work together in order to pick core performance goals. Also creating of action plan is appreciated as it would assist in customizing new and already existing knowledge. References Pardes, Juan Rudel. (1994, July-August). Motivate Every Learner: How to Replace Motivation Myths with Strategies that Work. Retrieved March 6, 2007, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0STR/is_n1_v104/ai_15669489/pg_2 Creating Training that Motivates. (2001). Retrieved March 6, 2007, from http://seniortechcenter.org/archive/learning_paths/training/start_lesson/creating_training_motivate.php#strategies Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Learning Strategies INTRODUCTIONEducators of young children have a propensity to share the goal of fostering childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s successful learning and achievement. As the pressure to give emphasis to academic standards enhances, it is all the more vital to reflect on the most effective practices for make certain that children are in fact learning what is being taught. Several factors related to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement are not in teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ control, but creating a climate of engagement in the classroom is (Finn, J.D., & D.A. Rock. 1997). The use of strategies is a powerful teaching tool vital in promoting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement for the reason that it focuses children on learning; supports learning specific skills and concepts; and provides children positive associations with learning.GENERAL DISCUSSIONMaintenance rehearsal refers to the simple repetition of items to hold them in working memory, where we are conscious of them. Thus, when we want to remember a phone number for long enoug h to ring it, or write it down, we repeat it to ourselves until we have completed our action. Rehearsal is an effective strategy for short-term recall, and young children can be taught to use the strategy (Graham, S., & B. Weiner. 1996). However, continued use of the strategy is more unlikely than not. It may be however, that training was insufficient to impress upon the children the usefulness of the strategy, and with better feedback they might be encouraged to use the strategy spontaneously. Maintenance rehearsal no doubt seems a self-evident strategy to any adult, simple as it is and long accustomed as we are to using it. However, it is, like any strategy, something we have to learn to do. It is rare in five year olds, common in ten year olds.Categorizing is another very basic strategy that many of us use to help us remember items (Baine, 1986) Thus, if you are given a list: APPLEÃ Ã JEEPNEYÃ Ã PANSYÃ Ã TRUCKÃ Ã SAMPAGUITAÃ Ã PLUMÃ Ã PEACHÃ Ã M OTORCYCLEÃ Ã ROSEÃ Ã MARIGOLDÃ Ã MANGOÃ Ã CAR the items will be much easier to remember if you note that the items belong to only three categories fruit, vehicles, flowers. Noting that there are four examples of each will also help. The category labels help considerably when it comes to retrieving the information. Most educated adults do this sort of thing automatically.But, again, like any strategy no matter how simple, it is not something we are born knowing. Very young children are not likely to group items at all, but if they do, it will be most likely according to some sort of association (cornflakes Ã¢â¬âÃ milk, baby Ã¢â¬â bottle, paper Ã¢â¬â pencil). If young children are taught to group items into taxonomic categories, they will still not use category labels effectively when retrieving the information, without explicit instruction. From around 6 or 7, children seem to benefit more from instruction in categorization strategies. If the children a re very young, such instruction may only confuse them. Using category labels as retrieval cues appears to be a more complex strategy than the first step of learning to group according to category, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear until later.Even children as old as 11 may benefit from explicit reminders to use category labels as retrieval cues and search the categories exhaustively before moving on. At around 7, about 50% of children appreciate the value of categorization as a memory strategy. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t increase all that much over the next few years (about 60% of ten year olds), although nearly all 17 year olds understand the strategy.The value of category labels in helping young children learn is another strategy. Category labels donÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to particularly help recall in children before the age of ten. Picture recognition is assisted by labeling in children as young as four. Researchers have had mixed results in labeling pictures as an aid to learning paired association s in young children. Labeling pictures does not appear to help very young children remember the order of items, but can be helpful to children from six years old until they are of an age to spontaneously label, when such explicit labeling may interfere with their own learning strategy. Labeling however often part of a wider strategy and may is well be helpful to young children for other reasons than improving recall. For example, it may be useful in helping children acquire language.Mnemonics is another strategy used by teachers for the children. Research into whether young children can improve recall by using visual imagery has produced mixed results (Yair, G. 2000). It would seem that, in general, the instruction to generate mental images does not improve recall in children 5 yrs and younger, but does improve recall in children 8 years and above. Children of six and seven appear to be at a transitional stage whereby some children can use the strategy effectively in some situations . The story, or sentence, mnemonic is a verbal mnemonic in which words to be remembered are linked together in a sentence or sentences (Brewster, C., & J. Fager. 2000). It is an effective strategy for learning a list of words.The research confirms that memory even in very young children can be helped by teaching them to use this verbal mnemonic strategy. It is more effective if the words are linked by verbs rather than prepositions simply stringing together words like this: The cat and the banana and the boat were in the skyÃ¢â¬ is much less memorable than composing: Ã¢â¬Å"The cat ate the banana and tossed the boat into the sky.Ã¢â¬ Sentence mnemonics have been effectively used by 6th graders to remember the correct spelling of words. The keyword method is one of the most successful mnemonic strategies to be used in education.It is of proven effectiveness as a method of learning new words, foreign language words, and social studies facts. As a technique for learning new words , it has been compared with the following common strategies: learning words in context; finding root words; learning synonyms and antonyms; presenting words in meaningful sentences; having students discriminate correct from incorrect use of words in sentences; and having students generate their own meaningful sentences and is apparently more effective than any of these methods. The keyword mnemonic has been used effectively by 4th graders. When pictures have been provided, it has been used effectively by 2nd graders. It is suggested that, for children 10 years and younger, instructions to visualize are supplemented by illustrating pictures.CONCLUSIONIdeally, teachers should use a wide range of strategies and then masterfully facilitate their implementation. Not only do strategies enable teachers to capture the interest of children as they learn the skills and concepts necessary for success in school, but children also experience what it feels like to be engaged in learning Ã¢â¬â a lifelong gift. Ã The strategies chosen depend on the purpose, teaching style, and the children in the classroom. Regardless of the strategies selected, effective facilitation is a key to making them work. By facilitation it means that the techniques used to execute a strategy.REFERENCE:Baine, David 1986. Memory and instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Brewster, C., & J. Fager. 2000. Increasing student engagement and motivation: From time on task to homework. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.Finn, J.D., & D.A. Rock. 1997. Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (2): 221Ã¢â¬â34.Graham, S., & B. Weiner. 1996. Theories and principles of motivation. In Handbook of educational psychology, eds. D. Berliner & R.C. Calfee, 62Ã¢â¬â84. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Yair, G. 2000. Reforming motivation: How the structure of instruction affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning experiences. Briti sh Educational Journal 26 (2): 191Ã¢â¬â210. Learning Strategies 1. Learning Strategies for SSC100 SSC100 is not only a common course, but also sets the tone for the whole four-semester study life in Seneca. Therefore, we should pay more attention to this course. My GPA to date is 3. 0 and my target GPA is 3. 5. In order to acheive the target, there are several strategies I should follow . First, take the classes regularly. Some other students may think that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessary to attend the classes , without which they can still pass this course.However, the powerpoints and the videos the instructors display in the classes are not only interesting but also helpful. Second, read through the textbook: Success Strategies for College. This book introduces diffrernt kinds of learning strategies in details, which are very useful in SSC100 itself, especially in the reflective test, and other courses throughout Seneca. Third, invovle in the group work. To tell the truth, I am not a good team worker, which is neither good for the current college stu dy nor good for the future work.Therefore, I should attach more importance to this part. Communication is a key factor in the group work. I will try my best to listen to others and give my own opinion as much as possible. Last, practice presentation. As for the group work, presentation is one of the most important parts. Practices can sooth the nerves and make the process more smooth in the real presentation. There are two ways to practice the presentation: first, gather the group mates to simulate; second, take part in the presentation workshops in the learning center.
Friday, September 13, 2019
National curriculum;with a focus on Primary literacy the theme i will be writing on is Phonics - Literature review Example 2006). These aspects are believed to have led to the formation of different theories related to learning and education. The main aim of this academic presentation is to be able to study and discuss two main theories related to learning and education Ã¢â¬â social constructivist theory of learning and the social cognitive theory. The analysis and evaluation of the same are believed to lead to the establishment of different important outcomes that can serve as a key reflection in the planning and development of learning and education structures. This makes it necessary to throw light on the same. The Social Cognitive theory of learning had been suggested by Bandura (1986). It is based on the principle and ideology that a particular learning system is considered to be effective and efficient when the same encourages the learners or individuals who are part of the learning system to be abreast of the action of others. The theory in itself suggests that the behaviour of human beings is largely influenced by the behaviour of others. The most significant observation in this case of learning is the development of a kind of imitation of the actions and behaviour of role models in the learning system (Rafferty, 2009). Vygotsky (1962) stated that human beings are highly socially dependent individuals and the experiences and learning which forms an integral part of the human existence in the world. These are best derived when the same are achieved through various exercises and endeavours that require the effective teamwork and involvement of human beings in groups (Cobb, 2006). The same is believed to increase the participative learning of the individuals. As they are not only able to contribute effectively to the entire learning process by presentation and application of their inherent knowledge and experiences, but are also able to enhance the same aspect among others (McInerney and
Thursday, September 12, 2019
The crisis management process - Essay Example This essay stresses that management of crisis is critical to long term success of the organization. As the case of Tesco horse meat crisis reflects, the issue has moved a huge customer base of the company in the European market. In this situation the company has been putting best efforts to manage the situation with utmost professionalism and transparency. This paper makes a conclusion that according to public opinion, level of food safety is falling in the country. This is the reason behind the lack of confidence among the shoppers about the item that they are buying. Tesco has to put right such failings in order to win back consumer trust and pull back consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence to the pre-scandal level. The company should immediately make a public declaration, over and above the promises to make investigation and refunding, that it would employ more sincere surveillance over the entire process starting from receiving supply form the suppliers, the process of production, packagin g and distribution of the products to the stores. It should also set new product standards for all the supermarkets not only in UK but around the world. This should be done in order to prevent tampering with the product in raw material stage to fully processed stage. It should also strictly follow the UK legislation of food legislation to account for all the ingredients that have been used in the product. Tesco should tighten its policies to take criminal action against the guilty that would be found responsible for breaking the law.... crisis intervention can be summarized as immediate intervention, stability, facilitating understanding, focusing on problem solving, and encouraging self-reliance (Flannery and Everly, 2000). Crisis management is an important ingredient for an organization to achieve success and following these basic principles would help in easing out its efforts. The way executives manage the communication pattern within the organization and the type of information exchanged between the organization and the stakeholders shape public perception. Public relations and media engagement are the two crucial elements of good crisis communication (Pauchant, Mitroff and Lagadec, 1991). The renowned global retailer Tesco has fallen victim to a serious scandal relating to the quality of a range of beef burgers sold by it. This is a serious stake for the company since the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation is on risk and the company is facing a slump in sale (Thomas, 2013). This article looks into the crisis communic ation maintained by the crisis management procedures followed by the company. Company overview Tesco had been established in the year 1919 in the East End in London (Tesco PLC, 2013a). A market stall owner, Jack Cohen, had set up the company with the vision of becoming Ã¢â¬Å"highly valued by the customersÃ¢â¬ (Tesco PLC, 2013b) served by the company. The business has grown successfully over the years and at present the company operates in 14 different countries in the world. Tesco is at present Ã¢â¬Å"the largest supermarket retailer in the United KingdomÃ¢â¬ (Aaker and Mcloughlin, 2010). The company has always focused on bringing the most pleasing shopping experience for the customers and also taking the necessary actions to do the best for its employees and the community as a whole. The values
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Equity and Trusts - Essay Example The difference arises because the common law only recognized legal ownership and gave no effect to trusts, which were enforceable only in equity. Legal interests in any assets are therefore rights in rem, enforceable against anyone; equitable interests were at first rights only in personam, enforceable against the trustee personally. Equity, however would not enforce a trust against any innocent buyer who knows nothing about the trust, as that enforcement would itself be inequitable, and so an equitable right is still not as strong as a legal right. These equitable rules became embodied in what is known as the doctrine of notice. This can be expressed as the following maxims: Ã¢â¬Å"Legal rights are good against the whole world; equitable rights are good against all persons except a bonafide purchaser of the legal estate for value without notice of the equitable interests in that land, and those claiming under himÃ¢â¬ This bonafide purchaser is often known as Ã¢â¬Å"equityÃ¢â¬â¢s darlingÃ¢â¬ . The essential features of this privilege person are that he is: 1) Bona fide Ã¢â¬â Any dishonesty, sharp practice will forfeit equityÃ¢â¬â¢s protection. 2) Purchaser for Value Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"purchaserÃ¢â¬ excludes those who inherit the property or acquire it by operation of law. Ã¢â¬Å"for valueÃ¢â¬ , while it does not necessarily mean Ã¢â¬Å"full valueÃ¢â¬ , means money or moneyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth or marriage. The decision of the House of Lords in Midland Bank Trust Co Ltd v Green 1981 AC 513 shows that the consideration need not be adequate. ... against the trustee personally. Equity, however would not enforce a trust against any innocent buyer who knows nothing about the trust, as that enforcement would itself be inequitable, and so an equitable right is still not as strong as a legal right. These equitable rules became embodied in what is known as the doctrine of notice. This can be expressed as the following maxims: "Legal rights are good against the whole world; equitable rights are good against all persons except a bonafide purchaser of the legal estate for value without notice of the equitable interests in that land, and those claiming under him"3 This bonafide purchaser is often known as "equity's darling". The essential features of this privilege person are that he is: 1) Bona fide - Any dishonesty, sharp practice or other inequitable practice will forfeit equity's protection. 2) Purchaser for Value - "purchaser" excludes those who inherit the property or acquire it by operation of law. "for value", while it does not necessarily mean "full value", means money or money's worth or marriage. The decision of the House of Lords in Midland Bank Trust Co Ltd v Green 1981 AC 5134 shows that the consideration need not be adequate. 3) Of a legal estate - This is essential; the purchaser of equitable interest5 is in general bound by prior equitable interests whether he had notice of them or not. 4) Without notice - The purchaser must have no knowledge of the equitable interest at the time he purchased his interest. There are three types of notices:a) actual notice - this must be within his own knowledge and must not be nearly a vague reference,
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Sleepwalking - Research Paper Example Sometimes it may also lead to nonsensical talking while a person is sleepwalking. The sleepwalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are also known to be open but have no recognition to be really seeing, as they have a glassy unfocused look in them. This kind of activity is most commonly observed during either middle childhood or young adolescence. Fifteen percent of the children from the ages of 4-12 experience sleepwalking. It is noted that most of these children resolve this behavior during late adolescence. Moreover, 10% of these sleepwalkers start their sleepwalking behavior as teenagers. It is also noted that some sleepwalkers may inherit this behavior genetically (Moorcroft 228). Every person experiences non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM has four stages and begins when a person starts to sleep. After the fourth stage, it goes to the REM sleep, which is when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are rapidly moving inside their closed eyes and so is experiencing dreams. The REM cycle is an important cycle as it is associated with producing hormones which aid in proper metabolism and growth of a person. Each of these cycles, that is the NREMÃ¢â¬â¢s four stages and REM, last for 90-100 minutes and then repeats all over till a person is awake (Coon, Mitterer, Talbot, and Vanchella 190). Sleepwalking however, occurs at some point in the third or fourth stage in either cycle. As this is a time when a person is deeply asleep, sleepwalking is barely witnessed in naps or when a person sleeps for a short amount of time. No memory of having experienced any particular behavior is remembered by the sleepwalker (Butkov and Teofilo 141). There are several causes of sleepwalking some of which can be associated with genetics. Sleepwalking is observed to be more frequent within identical twins. It also has a ten times increased probability to occur in someone whose first-degree relative has experienced sleepwalking. Then, there are psychological factors as well. It is more common in children as they experience greater amount of slow deep sleep and so makes them increasingly likely to suffer sleepwalking as compared to adults or teens. Different environmental factors can be associated with sleepwalking such as sleep deprivation, stress, fever, disorganized sleep schedules, magnesium deficiency, alcohol intoxication, or the usage of different drugs such as specific sedatives (medicines that trigger sleep), minor tranquilizers, stimulants, neuroleptics, antihistamines etc. Also, sleepwalking frequency is increased during menstruation or pregnancy. Certain medical conditions are associated with sleepwalking sometimes such as fever, Arrhythmias, Gastroesophageal reflux, night time seizures, night time asthma, obstructive sleep apneas, etc. Different psychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, multiple personality disorder, panic attacks are also connected to sleepwalking (Porth 596). There are some major symptoms of sleepwalkin g. Patients appear to be dazed and clumsy during their episodes and may appear to either be running around agitatedly or walking quietly around the room. Most often the sleepwalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are noted to be open, with an unfocused glassy look as the person roams about the area. Prior to contrary belief, they do not extend their arms while sleepwalking. If questioned during the state, the responses are either slow ones with thoughts which are